In United States of America, people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are estimated to be around 1.1 million. One individual in every seven of this infected population are unaware. The first case of infection was reported in the year 1981 and about 700,000 people have died due to this infection (Goodreau et al., 2017, p.315). This infection was detected by health professions after the discovery of pneumocystis pneumonia as well as Kaposi’s sarcoma from gay men within New York City, San Francisco and Los Angeles. HIV infections causes Human Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after certain period of time in human body. The Antiretroviral drugs used to reduce the virus load in the body. Most of the transmissions occurs from Latinos, Africa Americans, bisexual and gays. This paper will discuss the HIV epidemic in the United States.
Burden of HIV Infection
USA is the leading nation in the globe due to response to HIV, there is always increasing new infections .Its prevention as well as treatment and testing service which should prevent more infections are being hampered by discrimination and stigma. This epidemic has become a burden some of the groups more than others in USA. Southern states are home to 45% of the all population living with HIV and about half of the infections diagnosed every year regardless of its 37% rate of population (Sutton et al., 2017, p.8). They are referred to as key populations and are clustered together according to category of transmission, ethnicity or race. Some of the factors such as social-economic and economic driving safety to these populations are poverty, stigma, lack of health care and discrimination.
Men Having Sex with Men (MSM)
Gays are the most affected group with HIV in USA and they account for 2% in the population. Around 632300 men in USA have HIV due sex from other men, this is according to the most resend data. One in every six of this infected gays are unaware of their HIV status. Trends of HIV infections vary greatly by ethnicity and age .For example between 2010 and 2016, infections among black men who have sex who had sex with other men stable generally. Infection among age 25 to 34 increased by 65%(2600 to 43000) (Sutton et al., 2017, p.8).Infections of Hispanic men and Latino who engaged in sex with men rose by 30%, this is from 6400 to 8300.However, Infections among white men reduced from 8000 to 6700 (Sutton et al., 2017, p.8). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention latest statistics showed that number of men engaging in sexual anal sex without using protection is increasing.
Latino or Hispanic People
Hispanic or Latino community are also extremely affected by HIV.They account for 26% of new infections in spite of representing a population of 18 %. 22% from the annual HIV infections are Latino men while the women account for 3%.By the end of the year 2015, around 252400 people were living with HIV virus from the Latino community and one in every six was unaware of their status (Volberding, 2017, p. 5). From the year 2011 to 2015, HIV analysis remained stable overall from the Latino people. However among the women from this community, diagnosis has reduced steadily by 14% rose to 13% in men who engaged in sex with other men. Infections rose by 19% among the bisexual men and Latino gays (Volberding, 2017, p. 5) .They face a lot of challenges when accessing treatment and prevention services and some cultural influences and deportation are some of its barriers.
Studies have identified that there are some external social determinants affecting the capacity as well as efficiency of women engaging in behavior change concerning safer sexual behavior in the United States. For instance, stable housing for people who are HIV positive was attributed to alterations in risk behaviors. Changes that occur in housing status largely minimized the drug use risk, sharing of needles as well as unprotected sex (Volberding, 2017, p. 5). Moreover, social as well as structural factors like cultural, legal and also policy traits for the social environment might also reinforce the possibility and prone to HIV. Essentially, there is perspective of vulnerability that is possibly contributing to the rise of individual risk to getting exposed to HIV or hinders the capacity of protecting oneself from getting infected. This is clarified by the increase gender inequality as a significant factor affecting the economic participation of women as well as culminating in an inability of purchasing food and other life needs. Major examples of social determinants entail marital status, migratory behavior searching for employment, sexual violence, legal status as well as the geographical location.
The social determinants are possibly collective whenever they intertwine to establish and maintain the vulnerability contributing to the need for exclusive interventions for addressing their effects that overlap. Assessment of the vulnerability factors influencing HIV risks and suggesting that modification of these contextual factors might enhance risk reduction as well as providing justification for the development of women-specific intervention strategies geared towards specific risks determinants (Edwards and Collins, 2014, p.142). Some studies have identified the role that marital status, stress, children’s health, woman’s capacity as well as the opportunity to support herself financially. In the United States, there is a link between inequalities that women encounter on the basis of multiple social determinants and their corresponding impacts on women’s ability in making sound decisions related to their health.
The collective effects of social determinants of health among women in the United States also impact their decision making in relation to sexual behavior. For instance, a women who depends on a male sex partner does not have the power to persist on using a condom when she identifies that he has other sex partners. These type of dependence might impact other elements of her life like accessibility to food, housing as well as transport (Günthard et al., 2016, p.202). Domestic violence, empowered sexual preference as well as prenatal care are connected to economic accessibility and therefore ties to keeping and sustaining a good health. Significant linkages are existing between drug usage as well as risky behaviors. Likewise, women experience scarce heath resources in under-privileged communities where accessibility to health care as well as condoms are not easily available. Such barriers are existing in the United States. These social determinants within United States have contributed a lot in influencing HIV infection and spread.