Information Systems in Business & Organisations


The data that Happy Mind café wound gather from its transactions include; food orders made, payments records, and the number of customers. These data can be further processed to produce information (Lecture 1, Slide 4).  The food orders data produces information such as the intervals of food orders made and how they were served. The payment records produce information such as the amount received as well as types of payments used i.e. credit card, cash or mobile phone payments. The number of customers produces information such as customer behaviour like customer satisfaction showing repeated purchases.


The information can help in tracking their inventory (Lecture 1, Slide 3). For instance, the intervals of food orders made and how they were served can help to determine the amount of food consumed. Whereas, the amount of money received from the sales can help to determine the level of inventory and also customer behavior like customer satisfaction showing repeated purchases helps in determining the rate of consumption which in turn assist in managing the café’s inventory.


Information technology can help Happy Mind to comply with legal requirements pertaining to the sale of alcohol by providing them with information such as the age of their customers. This information can be obtained from data such as payment records made through credit card transactions. It can help them to distinguish children from adults because children are not eligible to have credit cards, therefore helping them to avoid selling alcohol to children. Information technology provides instant messaging, voice calling and email; this can enable Happy Mind to act socially responsible by reporting incidences of children trying to purchase alcohol so that they can be counselled appropriately. Moreover, information technology helps in sharing information and knowledge, this can help Happy Mind to inquire about legal requirements and age limits for the sale of alcohol from legal firms (Wu et al., 2015, p.503).


To accomplish every primary value activity of Porter’s value chain model, Apple has to do the following tasks:

Step 1:

Apple has to determine sub-activities for every primary activity that create a particular value to it (Fjeldstad and Snow, 2018, 34). This can be direct activities such as online sales obtained from sales, indirect activities such as ensuring updated CRM obtained from marketing and quality assurance which involve editing and proofreading advertisements.

Step 2:

Apple has to determine sub-activities for every support activity (Fjeldstad and Snow, 2018, 34). This can be done by considering how human resource management is valuable to operations, inbound logistics as well as outbound logistics.

Step 3:

Apple has to identify links between value activities identified. The link that can be established is between the development of the sales team and sales volume (Fjeldstad and Snow, 2018, 35). Another link is between CRM solution development and complaints in the primary activity, the rise of unfilled vacancies in primary activity, outbound logistics.

Step 4:

Ultimately, Apple has to find solutions by finding activities that can be optimized so that added value can be created. Qualitative and quantitative investments can be made to increase customer base, profit and competitive advantage (Fjeldstad and Snow, 2018, 35).


In production, transaction processing systems can be used to add value in production since it assists in processing daily operational tasks thus making the production process efficient (Lecture 2, Slide 5). Decision support system can be used in marketing and sales activities so as to solve problems like sales forecasting and resource forecasting (Lecture 2, Slide 8). This helps in predicting future sales so as to determine prospective markets in advance. Functional area information systems are appropriate to be used in services since they support specific functional area within an organization which consequentially increases every area’s internal efficacy and effectiveness (Lecture 2, Slide 14). Enterprise resource planning systems can be applied to both inbound and outbound activities since this system enhances the overall operations of a business (Lecture 2, Slide 19). It facilitates easy communication and coordination of activities both within and outside an organization.


The explicit knowledge that a university tutor can acquire over time are preparing research reports, and assessing, grading as well as recording student’s performance. The tacit knowledge includes intuition and humor (Nonaka and Toyama, 2015, p.5). These are obtained in their line of profession as they tend to balance they impart knowledge on students through teaching by making learning to be fun and informative at the same time.


Information systems can support Sofila’s managers to meet their vision in the following ways: Information systems such as customer management systems help in facilitating communication between customers and managers (Noe et al., 2017, p.31). Such systems provide instant emailing, messaging and voice calling which enables customers to express their compliments and complains so that they can be addressed. It provides effective communication which helps in retaining customers and promotes customer satisfaction.

Information systems such as computerized ordering systems help in making orders efficient and timely  (Noe et al., 2017, p.31). These systems promote customer satisfaction by creating order in the manner in which orders are placed to avoid confusion and as well to ensure that the right orders are delivered to customers in time. This helps in promoting customer loyalty.


To address the issue of disjointed information system and tracking problem that BNV experiences, BNV should implement an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. This system will solve these issues because it is an integrated system managing all business functions in a single user interface including sales and marketing, customer service, product planning, manufacturing and development (Lecture 2, Slide 24). ERP systems are important in tracking all business operations since all operations are integrated into one user interface. It also facilitates communication both in the internal and external environment of an organization thus enhancing business activities. Therefore, by implementing ERP systems, BNV will able to communicate effectively within the organization among its employees and also outside the organization with its customers and suppliers. Additionally, BNV will be able to efficiently track orders placed by customers and ensure appropriate deliveries are made in time.


One of the probable benefits of big data analytics in higher education is that it helps in customizing programs. Based on finding better ways to measure students’ success, the data obtained from education trails assist in designing coursework and programs in order to match the needs of the students (Daniel, 2015, 907). Also, big data analytics can help in identifying at-risk students. Students’ past performance in a class they have enrolled in can be cross-referenced to determine at-risk students so that approaches can be made to amend the schedule for the at-risk students and be placed in classes that would make them prepared for harder coursework.