The effort to end hunger is to some level, a continuation of the Millennium Development Goal 1. However, Sustainable Development Goal 2 which was initiated by Agenda 2030, is currently more detailed with a wider scope, which outlines some of the essential elements which are related to hunger in a direct way, demanding that we attain food security as well as improve food nutrition including the promotion of sustainable agriculture (Von Grebmer et al., 2016). Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2) incorporates and creates a linkage between nutrition, climate-resilient agriculture, and also food security. Emphasis on the role played by small agricultural producers in the agriculture industry is a vital element. SDG 2 is a multi-dimensional goal that encompasses many precise targets that are subdivided into three correlated components including to end hunger and improve nutrition, achieve food security through enhancing productivity, and also increasing income, as well as to promote sustainable agriculture (HUNGER, 2016). To make sure that access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for the people is achieved throughout the year, it is directly linked to poverty elimination since addressing undernutrition is inseparable from addressing the issue of poverty. This paper seeks to propose the solutions undernourishment, identify a business opportunity using the DIFA criteria, and also justify the way the business opportunity will achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 2.
Classification of the challenge
The population of undernourished individuals has dropped by about a half in the last two decades due to the rapid economic growth as well as increased agricultural productivity. Several developing countries that used to experience famine and also hunger currently can meet their vital nutritional needs. Essentially, Latin America, Central, and East Asia, as well as the Caribbean, have made significant progress in eliminating prevalent hunger (HUNGER, 2016). Unfortunately, extreme hunger and undernourishment remain a significant barrier to a barrier to development in several countries. There is an estimate of 821 million people who are undernourished often due to the direct impact of environmental degradation, biodiversity loss as well as drought. Moreover, it has been determined that more than 90 million children who are under five years old are underweight, which is dangerous (Reid et al., 2017). The big challenge remains to be undernourishment as well as severe food insecurity, which seems to be on the rise in about all parts of African and also in South America. This is a challenge that has hindered development in areas affected. Therefore, the challenge of undernourishment needs to be addressed efficiently to achieve SDG 2, Zero Hunger.
Changes of population and demand for food patterns require designing and coming up with much well-organized combined classifications of food processing, production, distribution and preservation, and better logistics and transport structure with roads enabling market access. This infrastructure includes transportation, market, communication, and efficient water use irrigation amenities that add value to achievements (Nabarro & Lasbennes, n.d.). Due to the rise of the inconsistency of climate and excesses, a strong network of transport, enabling transportation of food to stressed climate locations from its surplus, will be more significant. Accessing of infrastructure that can be seen is an essential factor for relations among income and productivity. From the viewpoint of SDG2, upgrade of infrastructure in rural and develop, integration of insignificant scale initiatives into the worth chain, and improvement of research in agriculture are associated with SDG9. Incase such research, monetary services, and infrastructure favors some manufacturers over others, the achievement of target beneath SDG9 may force realizations of specific SDG2 objectives or decrease equity in admittance towards such support (Nabarro & Lasbennes, n.d.). Further robust infrastructure like roads that are asphalted, larger dams to sustain infrastructure for irrigation may perhaps address the essentials for agri-exporters while paying no attention to those of smallholders and foodstuff doubtful. This infrastructure may also speed up the loss of biodiversity kindle some other unmanageable performs and over-extraction of water assets.
Food safety and hunger stand closely associated with poverty and, thereby, inequality. Eliminating or reducing disparities in a rule and legal fields should improve food and diet and sustain production in agriculture. Empowerment of producers of food in small-scale and make sure there is the same access to resources like land to enable the decrease of inequality. Changes and liberalization of trade apparatus advocated under SDG2 can badly affect achievements of the targets difference under SDG10 (Bakare, Olaniyi, & Oloruntola, 2019). Incase small scale growers are not connected to market and value chain and some non-competitive enterprises of farming facing pricing of imports under countrywide and local production costs. The liberalization of trade might make a nation’s capacity to make available some subsidy forms to internal consumers or farmers’ inequalities. However, it may also sustain the achievement of SDG2 by manufacturing foodstuff that is cheaper to low farmers, and most are of remaining clients of food and to consumers.
Advancement in diet and security of food, an increase of production in agriculture, and more viable food manufacturing systems will strengthen the sustainability and inclusiveness of cities. Living agricultural land for the development of towns and increasing output of agriculture may sustain ways on green space expansion and other expansion needs of a city. Cities that are created on agricultural land that possess firm water assets and uninhibited development in these parts may restrain the achievement of SDG2 by eliminating more land assets and by consumption and pollution of water properties (Reid et al., 2017). The possible trade-off can be addressed to a certain level by urban agriculture by farming foodstuff soil-less hydroponics or agriculture, aquaponics, nutrients recycle, aeroponics, and vertical farming. Agriculture in town thereby contribute sustainability in city developments and social welfare and may sustain green space expansion. It also may contribute to avoiding superfluous and re-using of biological waste in towns. Progressing rural to urban connections may support agriculture production and generation of income. Peri-urban surroundings always keep livestock and vegetable that are high valued manufacturing systems whose viable control is the solution to urban diet and food safety. Inhabitants in urban areas eat more processed foods, and from low-income nations, they have more people with obesity and malnourished people, unlike in rural homes. The address of malnutrition burden is a sustainable connection among SDG2 and SDG11 that requires more considerations.
Many features of SDG12 sustain development in SDG2, and it is vice versa. Background on programs under support production and intake arrangements are kept at UNEP, and its objective is creating awareness cooperation, developing information, and capacity building towards a better supportive system of food which openly build up all parts of SDG2 (Reid et al., 2017). Likewise, waste, loss reduction, and subsequent efficiency aims to control chemicals more cautiously sustain SDG2 in terms of production increase and supportive natural resource usage.SDG2 concentrates more on diet and production outcomes while SDG 12 focuses on the processing, procurement of the food system, and distribution, which complements and brings to an end perception of the food system (Nabarro & Lasbennes, n.d.). If developing nations that produce, distribute and consumed would use the SDG12 concentration on industrialized nations as an excuse not to mark development on SDG12 for their selves or expect support and funds from developed countries before doing any advancement thereby some features of SDG2 may not be accomplished. In addition pressures can come up if enactment approach recommended for streamlining ineffective fossils- fuel backings is carried out in the food value and agriculture chain without options being put in place. Removal of such grants may increase the price of foods which may pressure eradication of famine by creating food to be less expensive
The intensity of weather, rising temperature and precipitation patterns harmfully disturbs agriculture creation system especially those from nations that are developing. Which may intern limits the accomplishments of hunger and diet goals under SDG2.It is essential that investing in agriculture raises the segments adaptive and flexibility possibility to climate change such as marshalling huge funds for climate justification and variation and how weather mitigation and variation possibilities are carried out in the agricultural sector underneath the frameworks of climate change. Attaining SDG 13 will, therefore, need the minimization of greenhouse gases emission in agricultural activities as well as other associated activities relying on the actions to make to end hunger, the double farm produces, and also ensure more sustainable food production systems might be attained either faster or not (Nabarro & Lasbennes, n.d.). Various actions can be effectual in this sector, for instance, a moratorium on extensive encroachment of agricultural areas into forests, taxing high emitting livestock production, the increased implementation of no-till agriculture, and more support to agroforestry systems. Through incorporating action on sustainability along with action on improving productivity as well as sequestrating soil organic matter, agriculture could be viewed as a portion of the solution in mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas emission and also strengthening adaptation strategies.
Identification of business opportunity
The appropriate business opportunity for this challenge is the supply of nutritious food items to various parts of the world. This includes mostly targeting areas that are undernourished because this is where the demand is high, which is good for business.
Based on this business opportunity, global undernourishment affects about 821 million. In Asia, about two-thirds of its population, which is 63%, make up the world’s hungry population. Moreover, approximately 151 million children under the age of five make up 22% of the world’s undernourished people (Reid et al., 2017). Research also identified that more than one in every eight adults is obese. Also, one in every three women that have reached the age of reproduction is anemic. To add to it, 26% of workers are under agricultural unemployment. Therefore, with regard to these data, it indicates that there is a business opportunity (Reid et al., 2017). These data indicate that there is a high population of undernourished people, therefore creating a significant demand for nutritious food. This is ideal for business which it is inevitable that it will be profitable.
The available data forecast is essential in predicting the viability of the business. A population of 821 million undernourished people makes a significant impact on the business. This population indicates a big customer base, which is essential for the business to remain profitable (Nabarro & Lasbennes, n.d.). A significant population of undernourished people significantly impacts the demand for nutritious food items. It is, therefore, vital to understand the market to meet the demand. Knowing the population that is undernourished significantly impacts the business’ capital and operation cost. Essentially, supplying this population will help in achieving SDG 2 and also making the business profitable.
The model will be utilized in daily business to help guide the business. Supplies need data to balance the books and determine the number of food items that need to be produced and supplied to the undernourished population. Essentially, the model helps in assessing demand and also helps in balancing the demand and supply so that the supply does not supersede the demand (Mwitondi, 2017). However, a monthly report will be managed by automation software. This will helps in balancing the checkbook. It also gives insight into the implementation as well as the maintenance cost.
Automation is desirable in this business opportunity. The population of undernourished individuals can be processed by a computer using appropriate software that will be used by decision-makers in driving decisions form an operational or strategic perspective (Mwitondi, 2017). An increase in demand for food supply indicates an increase in undernourished people. Automation will ensure that the supply is accessible and equitable; therefore, helps in reducing hunger.
Justification & rationale the business meets the sustainable development goal
The business, which entails supply of food items to the undernourished population, will meet SDG 2 objectives since it will increase food supply targeted at the undernourished people, which will help in ending hunger as well as improving nutrition (Bakare et al., 2019). It will also meet the SDG 2 objective of attaining food security by enhancing productivity and increasing income. This will be possible since the business will help to create jobs for its supplies, which helps in increasing income and also improves productivity by making nutritious food available and easily accessible for the undernourished population, making them stronger and able to work. This makes this population be more productive.