Obesity is an emerging epidemic worldwide. It is a complex health complication to address. According to the World Health Organization, obesity is defined as an abnormality of excess fat accumulation which poses risk to a person’s health. Obese individuals have a higher risk of developing adverse conditions. Apparently, in Australia, one in four adults is currently obese (Obesity-Update-2017.pdf, 2017). Cases of obesity have been prevalent and continue to increase day by day. In fact, it is projected that by 2025 about 83% of men and 75% of women at the age of 20 years and over in Australia will be obese and also a third of 5 to 19-year-old individuals (Obesity-Update-2017.pdf, 2017). Additionally, it is determined that people in Australia live longer with obesity most often starting in childhood or early adulthood. Obesity is a serious and challenging health problem with several impacts on both the individual and the country at large (Obesity-Update-2017.pdf, 2017). Therefore, this paper will discuss the diet and lifestyle causes of obesity as well as health and psychological effects of obesity.
Causes of Obesity
Unhealthy diet & unhealthy eating habits
One of the main causes of obesity is because of the binging unhealthy diet and also eating habits. Several people just eat whatsoever they prefer without considering their nutritional value. Currently, people prefer taste over nutrition. People eat junk food from fast food outlets. Fast food has a high content of calories and fats which can rain the LDL cholesterol commonly referred to as bad cholesterol and results in cardiovascular diseases. Such high-fat content foods include cheese and French fries (Brand-Miller et al., 2017). Moreover, consuming canned food as well as drinking a lot of sugary drinks including alcohol causes obesity since they have high fat and sugar content (Brand-Miller et al., 2017).
Another unhealthy eating habit that causes obesity is eating without hunger. Some individuals tend to develop a psychological effect of feeling satiety to satisfy hunger and this promotes overconsumption. Nonetheless, there are other several internal and external aspects such as plenty of food and availability of food that make an individual to continuously eat or even eat when not hungry (Brand-Miller et al., 2017). Such behavior can result in obesity and is a common unhealthy eating a bit among both children and adults. Moreover, eating large amounts of food as well as comfort eating habits leads to incomplete digestion and causes digestion complications. In order to minimize the risk, balanced diet and healthy eating is recommended and should be well-planned.
Lifestyle such as lack of physical exercise is another cause of obesity. In this generation, several people work in jobs involving a lot of sitting in front of a desk for almost the entire day and also a hectic lifestyle. People today depend on transportation means like a car or bus to facilitate their movements instead of cycling or walking (Brand-Miller et al., 2014). Moreover, people choose to spend their leisure time watching TV, surfing the internet and also play computer games rather than involving themselves in physical exercising activities. Such type of lifestyle is referred to a sedentary lifestyle which does not involve burning of calories within their bodies. Essentially, when energy given by food in the body is not utilized, the extra energy will be stored within the body in the form of fat. Therefore, regular exercise should be carried out since it helps to burn away calories within a human’s body.
Effects of Obesity
Obesity has serious health effects linked to a variety of diseases. Coronary heart disease is one of the diseases caused by obesity. Coronary heart disease normally results from a build-up of fat deposits along the walls of arteries at the heart. Foods with high-fat content and cholesterol cause atheroma to pile along the coronary arteries walls narrowing them thus resulting in atherosclerosis which when the severe result in heart failure (Brand-Miller et al., 2017). Moreover, type 2 diabetes is caused by obesity since overweight adds more pressure on the capacity of the body to control blood sugar. Additionally, obesity also causes high blood pressure due to the fats piled along the walls of the arteries, causing work overload in the heart as blood find it hard to pass through the narrow arteries. In essence, high pressure on the artery wall increases blood pressure.
Obesity also leads to the development of respiratory disorders due to reduced lung capacity (Brand-Miller et al., 2017). As a result, obese people have higher risks of getting a respiratory infection. These respiratory infections can further lead to the development of asthma as well as respiratory disorders. And that explains the reason as to why asthma is common among obese people than other non-obese people. Another respiratory disorder that can be caused by obesity is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) (Brand-Miller et al., 2017). This is a critical breathing disorder that arises when excessive fat along the throat and tough blockade the air passage when the individual is asleep. This further result in a condition referred to as apnea. This means that the individual stops breathing for a while and this apnea episode lead to a reduced quantity of oxygen in the individual’s blood. OSA can result in hypertension, heart failure, fatigue and drowsiness. And untreated drowsiness can increase the risk of causing motor vehicle accidents.
There are psychological impacts of obesity which include the development of low self-esteem as well as anxiety, critical disorders like depression as well as eating disorders like overeating, anorexia and also bulimia (Brand-Miller et al., 2014). The modern society embraces and worship slim toned bodies and considered as being sexy while fat and overweight people are considered to be ugly. This makes obese individuals to develop low self-esteem. Obese people are under looked due to their overweight bodies and therefore this lead to body dissatisfaction and depression (aihw-phe-216.pdf., 2017). An obese individual can easily feel bad about himself or herself to develop obsessions based on eating control when the culture emphasizes that one’s physical appearance is entirely undesirable.
To sum up, obesity has been a big problem not only in Australia but also globally. It is clear that obesity is a serious and challenging problem with several impacts on both the individual and the country at large. Notably, the causes of obesity are determined to be unhealthy diet and eating habits as well as inappropriate lifestyle. Moreover, obesity is found to have health effects and psychological effects. Being a serious problem, the issue of obesity needs to be addressed. Therefore to address the obesity issue, people should practice good and healthy eating habits, practice proper and healthy lifestyles and also exercise a lot.