Economic globalization is the process of global economic incorporation, which started in the late twentieth century, ignited by neoliberal ideals. Economic globalization has significant effects on people. But feminists have a different perspective on the impacts of economic globalization. Feminists claim that women are affected the most by economic globalization more than men (Federici, 2012). Therefore, feminist philosophers argue that economic globalization needs to be understood concerning the impacts it has on women, making up the disproportionate percentage of the global poor. In a broad sense, postcolonial feminists conditions such as economic inequalities, gender marginalization, and exploitation have been sustained and ignited by globalization. They also argue that globalization systematically favors men over women. Most admit that the impacts of globalization on women have been mainly negative. For instance, a famous feminists Jaggar argues that globalization had promised several things which are vital to feminists, including social justice, racism eradication, peace, ethnocentrism eradication, prosperity, environmental protection as well as raising women’s status (Deepak, 2012). But, feminists argue that neoliberal policies have caused the opposite of these. Instead of peace, conditions of alleviated militarism as well as war. Instead of prosperity as well as social justice, the gap between the rich and the poor has increased. Instead of fostering environmental protection, natural resources have been privatized and destroyed. Rather than eradicating sexist barriers as well as ethnocentrisms, globalization has turned out to be a hostile system for women. This paper will argue on the feminist perspective that women are disproportionally negatively impacted by economic globalization.
Feminists have extensively argued that neoliberal policies have caused dramatic economic inequalities across the world. One role of the feminist political philosophers has been to determine ways whereby these policies strengthen certain inequalities that are based on nationality, race, class, and, most importantly, gender (Powell, 2014). Notably, according to feminists, they argue that the neoliberal policies for particular women groups have rendered them to be disparate and mostly tend to be disproportionately burdensome. Women are under looked and not included in neoliberal policy formulation.
Free trade policies
Feminists significantly critique free trade policies. According to them, they claim that free trade liberalization has resulted in the extensive movement of manufacturing jobs that pay well to low wages. Globalization has resulted in low wages, and women are the most affected. Globalization has transformed the means of communication and also the means of transport. People can now easily interact and move from one place to another. Therefore, companies have resorted to outsourcing jobs to other countries whereby labor is cheap and with minimal regulation s relating to working conditions (Ponzanesi, 2014). Globalization has made companies be flexible in choosing their location for operation and choosing employees. Consequentially, when companies seek to outsource employees from other countries, the local workers who were depending on well-paying manufacturing jobs end up being unable to make a living on their own. Women tend to be more vulnerable to these consequences. Women play a significant role in families and society at large, and in such situations, they tend to be overburdened. Due to globalization, most jobs have been significantly replaced by conditional as well as part-time jobs, which appear to be paid poorly and also retirement benefits. Women tend to need more health attention as compared to men (Ponzanesi, 2014). Therefore, the emergence of part-time jobs lacking medical insurance and pays poorly places women at risk. In the current society, women have broader responsibilities, and playing low wages inconveniences women making their lives harder. Essentially, the corresponding minimization of real wages has significantly disproportionately impacted women, especially women of color, having a bigger share of service sector jobs.
In most countries, foreign-owned companies, as well as assembly production facilities, have thrived in free trade zones, making what is generally known as the global assembly line. In history, foreign-subjugated industrial expansion has caused more job opportunities for men. These foreign-owned industries have shown to prefer employing women more than men. Feminists argue that these companies consider women to be weaker and unsuitable for their jobs. Therefore, these companies tend to target men as their workers more than women. Some do not employ women at all (Benería, Berik, & Floro, 2015). Essentially, gendered, as well as racial stereotypes, play a vital role in forming such gendered labor division. Moreover, due to the foreign-dominated industrial expansion that has been caused by globalization, there has been a cultural clash that has tended to affect women in the host countries negatively. In some states, women are not supposed to work in firms. Therefore, working in manufacturing companies and some tedious jobs have been set aside only for men. Due to globalization, these cultures have been transferred to other countries that do not practice such cultures. As a result, women in the host countries are denied job opportunities by foreign companies that practice the culture of not employing women. This leaves women devastated and over depended on men, which further exposes them to exploitation from men. Based on the feminist argument, they claim that globalization has facilitated the widespread of redundant cultures that underprivileged women are making them economically dependent and overburdened.
Difficult and insecure jobs
Feminist philosophers claim that work activities in global assembly line jobs are hard, insecure, as well as dangerous. They claim that the working conditions are poor, characterized by long working hours, low wages as well as prevalent sexual harassment. These conditions are very hazardous and keep away women. According to feminists, women are tender and require favorable working conditions (Parekh & Wilcox, 2018). However, the working condition and environment brought about by globalization, especially in the industrial sector, are not favorable, especially women. Men tend to tolerate such working conditions; therefore, secure job opportunities which enable them to depend on themselves and make a living. Women, on the other end, are scared away by the unfavorable working conditions and environment, leaving them unemployed, broke and poor. This ultimately led to the dependence of women on men to survive.
Exploitation by corporation
Feminists also argue that even though there has been an increase in the economic power among women, it may give women some freedom in their families and also expose them to significant exploitation by the foreign corporation who collide with their government. They assert that governments have neglected women leaving them prone to exploitation by international corporations. Women, as employees, usually encounter a form of labor control that is nearly medieval in its requirement of subservience as well as dependence. The government has failed to regulate foreign corporations to respect women and treat them fairly (Federici, 2011). Today, some corporations deny women top governance positions and designated for men. Only men are allowed to take the top position, which is rewarded with high wages. Women, on the other hand, are left to occupy low-rank job positions, whereby they earn low wages. This shows that despite the promises that globalization promised, women are disadvantaged by its consequences. Inequality in terms of job position and wages earned between men and women has been wide, indicating that women are the most affected negatively.
Trade liberalization policies
It is also argued that trade liberalization policies some developed countries to be capable of selling heavily subsidized agricultural products in developing and underdeveloped countries. This has led to the deterioration of the small-scale as well as subsistence farming. For example, developed countries like China have been allowed to sell heavily subsidized products in underdeveloped countries in Africa (Federici, 2011). Businesses conducted mainly by women in those areas end up flopping or failing at all. This has frustrated women and makes their lives difficult. Several female farmers have fallen victims for this having been pushed away from their land and seek employment in export and processing facilities or as seek to be seasonal laborers at a low wage as compared to that of men. Additionally, due to unfair trade practices from foreign corporations, others have resorted to low salaries and dangerous jobs within the informal economy.
Structural adjustment policies
Feminist philosophers have also centered on the gendered impact of structural adjustment policies that several developing nations have been forcefully made to carry out as borrowing money conditions or debts rescheduling. The significant decline in education, public-wellbeing, healthcare services, and childcare that is funded by the government, undermine the public’s health and wellbeing that they impact (Federici, 2011). The impact of adjustment policies is disproportionate on women. Declined public health services have led to an increase in maternal mortality. School fees introduction as resulted in making education unavailable and hard to access by poor children, mostly girls are resulting in high rates of school dropouts among girls in various countries. The decline in other social services that are funded by the government also disproportionate women who have caregiving roles, making them more dependent on these programs.
Additionally, structural adjustment policies have played a critical role in increased poverty as well as unemployment among developing countries, thus placing more burden on women in their families and in public. In instances of economic challenges, men tend to maintain their expenditures, whereas women are anticipated to satisfy their needs using their few resources (Federici, 2011). As a result, women have been forced to come up with survival tactics for their families, generally by taking the caregiving labor, which is no more granted by the government. Women are also faced with intense pressure to earn income from outdoors. A number of women have not been able to identify fulfilling jobs since their home countries have resorted to labor migration. Women have been left with no choice but to work with sex workers, child prostitution due to these conditions as women struggle to survive.
Migration has increased along with economic globalization and ladies consists of larger migrants proportion mainly labor migrants .Feminist falls under two argument lines due to response of migration feminization .early labor from this particular locations shows ways hi which immigration, culture, class ,race and gender comes up with inconsistent burdens of immigrant women from status interconnection. Early feminist work debate that in racist, sexist and class- divided societies such as United State of America had some of the gender; neutral immigration guidelines that work to the disadvantage of immigrant women (Baars, Dannefer, Phillipson, & Walker, 2016). Some of the U.S legislation for immigration such as Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendment heightens the possibility of violence to immigrant women. At first when a permanent resident or a citizen married a foreigner and apply for permanent citizenship for her spouse, residency was legally granted immediately. This process was changed by adding a two year period of residency under conditions, this period the couples should remain in marriage and both spouses are to petition for long-lasting residency after the end of two years waiting period. This helped immigrant women to escape abusive marriages due to immigration status.
Global care chains
Some of the recent attitudes to feminization of migration globally are the global cares chains. This chains connect women all over the globe and are made from internal services worldwide exchange. Global care chains began when women joined the paid labor force and this led to hiring of other women from developing nations to care for their kids and other dependent relative. This migrants women leave their children from their home nations to be cared by family members who are poorer who may be surviving for a living with paid labor. Several factors contributes production of global care chains in most of the nation’s that are wealthy due to entry of paid workforce by women (Baars et al., 2016). In poor nations, supply of domestic work has been encouraged by unavailability of high paying jobs and this leads to reliance on remittances. Cutting of public services by most of the nations have stimulated women to migrate as a better option to earn income they require to clear services for their children such as education and healthcare.
Difficult issues for feminists are being raised by Global care chains, those raised by inequalities under background helps to coming up of them. Some women takes advantages of opportunities in the paid workforce because some women takes up their assigned domestic work socially leaving behind their families under care of others. This global care chains also contribute to a global drain care process called neo-colonial (Baars et al., 2016). Care is comes up from people in poor nations and transferred to individuals in wealthy countries. Analyses of care chains in feminist claims that traditional philosophies of justice possess difficulty articulating some of the injustices being involved from these phenomena. Most of this theories focuses on unfair distribution of burdens and benefits among the countries. Women pursue opportunities available in the public sphere from employing migrant caregivers. Migrants become able to send to home some of the money for their children and this will economically benefit their mother nation from this remittances. Caregivers who are migrants are open to abuses and exploitation from the workplace while their children left behind suffer due to their absence. The right to receive care and give should be considered as a basic human right in order to protect caregivers and dependents from dangers that comes from relationships that are fractured. Destroying global care chains requires recognizing care as identity source, meaning and a good intrinsic which are required to be recognized as human rights.
Ethics of care
Some feminists tend to claim that the feminist ethics of care is suitable for theorizing global care chains. Particularly, care ethics stresses many main normative features as well as practices in which traditional theories tend overlooking solid specific appreciation of human dependence as well as proneness and the relational acknowledgment of self. Care ethics stress on ethical importance of relationships established through dependency, like those formed between caregivers and their charges. Feminists argue that mutual relationships that exist between particular individuals whereby care and affection is the norm, playing an essential role in the formation and sustainability of self-identities of individuals (Powell, 2014). Whenever these relationships are interfered with, individuals are affected, suffering harm on their sense of self as well as self-respect. The impact of global care chains is on the threat to the relationship that is made up of self-identity. In order to protect caregivers as well as dependents, from the harms from ruptured relationships. Therefore, according to feminists, giving and receiving care is a right that needs to be considered as a fundamental human right. Women are deprived of their basic right to care. Every human being, including women, need to be granted the right to giving and receiving care. The government needs to care for women and protect them from being exploited by foreign cooperation. Essentially, feminists are more concerned with women being cared for (Powell, 2014). They are advocating for care for women, among just like men are given care. With regard to family, women are given the responsibility of caregiving. With regard to this, women should be given priority through means such as giving them jobs and better wages since they are the primary caregivers. Frustrating women and financially starving them affects the entire family and possibly the whole country.
Women are viewed to be hardworking
Feminist opponents argue that today, women are considered to be more hardworking dexterous and tractable. Due to globalization and the introduction of new technologies, women’s lives have transformed due to their quick adaptability with technologies. Women are perceived to be smart and high value in workplaces due to their ability to multitask. This ability has women to get job opportunities more than men. Moreover, companies, especially those that are involved in businesses, consider their employees as part of the brand reputation of the company (Ponzanesi, 2014). Off late, the physical appearance of employees is greatly considered. This has given more women job opportunities due to their beauty and their capacity to attract customers, thus consequentially boosting sales leading to increased profitability. Therefore, with an effort to address the issue of unemployment, governments have focused on capitalizing on this perception by encouraging foreign investment whereby women tend to get more job opportunities.
Jobs for women
Proponents of globalization claim that the growth of export processing has made a positive impact on women by granting job opportunities for several unemployed women as well as providing new forms of agency. Globalization has promoted trade expansion, leading to an increase and expansion of industries and companies. This has led to increased job opportunities, which have created job opportunities for many women. Both men and women have been employed due to globalization (Baars et al., 2016). Some job opportunities have been set aside to be exclusively for women. Therefore, it is a fallacy to claim that globalization has widely affected women negatively. Women have benefited economically due to globalization through the formation of an agency, which is intended to protect women. Therefore, women’s jobs are protected, giving women their financial freedom and liberating them from dependency on men.
To sum it all, feminists arguments makes sense based on the validity of the claims they make and the facts they give to back up their arguments. In our society, women tend to be vulnerable to various social, economic or environmental factors. With regards to globalization, the consequences of globalization significantly affect women more than men. Globalization systematically favors men over women. The impacts of globalization on women have been mainly negative. The neoliberal policies for particular women groups have rendered them to be disparate and mostly tend to be disproportionately burdensome. Due to globalization, most jobs have been significantly replaced by conditional as well as part-time jobs, which appear to be paid poorly and also retirement benefits. Women tend to need more health attention as compared to men. Therefore, the emergence of part-time jobs lacking medical insurance and pays poorly places women at risk. Globalization has facilitated the widespread of redundant cultures that underprivileged women are making them economically dependent and overburdened. Women are scared away by the unfavorable working conditions and environment, leaving them unemployed, broke and poor. Women, as employees, usually encounter a form of labor control that is nearly medieval in its requirement of subservience as well as dependence. Most governments have failed to regulate foreign corporations to respect women and treat them fairly. Even though some oppose feminist, perspective that globalization has brought more positive impact to women, the negative impacts on women is more outstanding and critical.