There has been a significant difference in pain experience, accessibility to pain medications and pain treatment. The race has been determined to be the apparent factor to this. Prior research suggests that the blacks report more pain, have limited access to pain medication as well as experience limited activity as a result of pain (Notaro, 2012). Dependent variables in this study include pain intensity, functional disability and pain management effectiveness. Independent variables include age, gender, income, marital status, and ethnicity. This study takes on a directional hypothesis rather than a non-directional hypothesis. There is little literature to back up the relationship between disability and persistent pain and moreover, fewer studies have been carried out in the older population, therefore, signifying a gap in the literature (Schmidt & Brown, 2015). Thus the research question is: What is the interrelationship among pain, disability, and race in older adults?
Clinical placement has always been considered an important aspect of nursing education essential in preparing students for reality in nursing. Nonetheless, clinical placement roles remain unanswered including learning outcomes, duration, and style (Schmidt & Brown, 2015). Qualitative Comparative Analysis novel approach is utilized to answer these questions if there is any causal relationship between some clinical placement aspects like preparation level, level of benefit, time duration and the ability of nurses to give a variety of nursing interventions (Harris, 2017). Independent variables are time, nurses’ capability to provide effective services, preparation level, and level of benefit. The dependable variable is the patient outcome. This research takes on a directional hypothesis rather than a non-directional hypothesis. The research question, therefore, is: What is the relationship among the role of clinical placement patient outcome and nursing education?