Wiesel and Hubel as Nobel Prize Winners Free Essay

Wiesel and Hubel are the reputable physiologies who receive the Nobel Prize in 1981 in Physiology due to their discoveries regarding the visual system (Hensch, 2016). These were the most important discoveries in history that made a significant contribution to the field of medicine and physiology. Actually, the visual system is the most dominating system in the human sense and humans have a tendency of depending so much on their visual systems when trying to perceive the sense of their environment (Lagercrantz, 2016). However, because of Hubel and Wiesel’s discoveries, humans are now capable of knowing that below their visual experiences, complex connections, as well as integrations, are there thus allowing us to appreciate the environment through visual experience (Hensch, 2016). This paper will discuss Wiesel and Hubel as Nobel Prize winner and also their discoveries regarding the visual system that led to their award of the Nobel Prize.

In their discoveries on the visual systems, Hubel and Wiesel used cats as well as rhesus macaque monkeys in carrying out their experiments. They were capable of demonstrating that after arriving at the retina, the visual stimuli pass through the optic never traveling towards the thalamus’ lateral geniculate nucleus which is the first place that the first visual is processed in the brain (Wickens, 2019). After reaching the lateral geniculate nucleus, the visual stimuli then proceeds by traveling towards the visual cortex within occipital part within the brain. Literally, these structures are the bases of our present knowledge regarding the visual system.

Hubel and Wiesel proceeded to record the nerve’s electrical impulses within the visual cortex as a way of responding to the different visual stimuli encountered in the eyes (Wickens, 2019). Both of them were capable of differentiating two sorts of cells within the cortex they ended up naming it simple and complex. In essence, simple cells were determined to be responding to only a single visual stimulus type whereas the complex cells were determined to be responding to multiple as well as opposite stimuli (Lagercrantz, 2016). In a certain different research, they utilized autoradiography to trace the neuronal connections within the visual system thus finding that visual impulses obtained from both eyes were separate from the lateral geniculate nucleus.

Moreover, they identified impulses then proceeded to establish a pattern of sporadic columns along the edges of the cortical cells. They then referred to them as the ocular dominance columns (Wurtz, 2016). Actually they also determined that because the arrangement and alignment of cells are in columns, to analyze the visual impulses will be undertaken in a sequential order from one nerve cell to the other as well as that each cell is accountable for a certain image detail meaning that the evaluation and incorporation of visual impulses are colorants and continual (Wurtz, 2016). After that, the information is transferred to other brain parts for the production of emotions as well as memory which are relevant in the creation of visual images through the visual cortex.

In their successful research, Hubel and Wiesel were capable of demonstrating that cells within the visual cortex possess a vital developmental period. The identified that monocular deprivation within the macaque’s life initial 6 weeks is enough in the production of a shift of ocular choice (Hubel & Wiesel, 2005). They also determined that a living organism having one eye closed in the initial 3 months in life that high actually tends to be blind. Their extensive examination identified no alteration in the retina, no alterations within the optic tract as well as lateral geniculate nucleus thus having changes occurring only within the visual cortex (Hubel & Wiesel, 2005). Additionally, they also identified in their findings that visual stimuli are insufficient in causing the normal cortex development, thus making it necessary for the images to possess diverse patterns (Hubel & Wiesel, 2005).

In essence, the discoveries made by Hubel and Wiesel have made a significant contribution by making certain clinical implications. The discovery provided the scientific society knowledge regarding the brain’s plasticity instantly after birth. Their discoveries placed emphasis on the role played by the enriched environment in facilitating diverse senses development. Their discoveries imply that whatever we encounter in the present day as well as the way we view the world currently relies significantly on our sensory insight in the course of our early developmental years. Their discoveries also led to the establishment of the treatment of diverse childhood eye complications. Their experiment helped in revealing the way mammal’s visual system develops which made a significant basis of understanding visual development in humans which laid a foundation for the treatment of visual system disorders. In essence, Hubel and Wiesel’s successive experiment after its successful completion, it enabled surgeons to be capable of operating on hereditary cataracts at the moment that the diagnosis is made on the infant. Eventually, Hubel and Wiesel in 1981 were awarded the Nobel Prize for either Medicine or Physiology due to their successful research on visual system development.