The formatting and implementation of policies are theoretically and practically different issues. Implementation of policies may be a complicated procedure because it involves financial, political, and administrative matters and needs motivation, lobbying, administrative, technical and, professional support.
Policies are penned statements of concepts, plans of action and objectives which are proposed or incorporated by public and private agencies
The public policy represents the roadmap to actions that signifies a broader structure for operationalizing an ideology, principle, mandate, vision or resolution, etc. which are converted into different programs, initiatives, and acts. A policy includes a broad declaration of long term goals and actions and outlines the forms and means to accomplish them. This is a government involvement system that encompasses a wide range of activities.
Anderson (2010) describes public policy as a purposeful plan of action to be pursued by an individual or group of actors in addressing a problem or concern. On the other hand, Hedge, Lester, and Stewart (2008) define public policy as a sequence or structure of government operations or choices intended to rectify several social issues.
Public policy needs to be put into action. The success of a selected public policy relies on how well it is put into action. The best policy even is of little value if not successfully or appropriately implemented. One of the challenges with successful policy implementation is that it needs guidance on how to execute it in the proper direction. Significantly, that direction should be sourced from the ideas it should follow.
Momentarily this whole method or activities occurring in public policymakers have become the levels of the policy cycle that illustrate each policy’s life.
Each policy must overcome the process known as the policy life cycle, starting from defining the agenda before reviewing the policy or terminating it by providing an alternate policy that replaces it and passes the process.
POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: DEFINITION
As a fundamental term, policy implementation is described as the third phase of the policy cycle, which implies that the policy processes immediately following the enactment of any law, or those measures taken to resolve the problem. Implementation, more commonly recognized, involves the execution of the law, in which different actors, techniques, procedures, and organizations function together in support of enacted policies to accomplish policy or project’s objectives. Implementation can even be described in the form of outcomes or in the way of supporting or achieving program targets, such as the number of costs dedicated to the program.
This is a process that helps to explain the implementation of policies as a step connected to other levels.
By setting of agenda, we refer to mentioning the issues or problems requiring significant time and attention at an open meeting or legislation by government officials or organizations. In other words, this is the collection of the issues which the government decides to take measures against.
Formulation of policies
The adoption of legislation aimed at solving past issues or avoiding possible future problems can be rights or powers, facts, inducements, and is usually the legislative’s responsibility.
Implementation of policies
It could be viewed as a significant part of the policy cycle, which involves what occurs immediately a bill becomes a law or what measures are taken, or how the issue is resolved, by requiring a mechanism to turn the law into effect and ensure the law becomes accomplished.
Evaluation of Policy
Taking into account the policy results that were implemented or how the policies are achieving the desired results, the actual impact of legislative action on a specific problem, this is likely by looking into and learning from the penalty of implementing this policy.
Termination or Change of Policy
By redesigning specific policies into new ones after evaluating them (Paul Sabatier 1980), otherwise, it is not possible to conclude obsolete programs or policies. This process is the conclusion of the policy cycle and can, therefore, imply readjustment, termination of programs, and partial removal of policies.
WHO IMPLEMENTS THE POLICY?
The leading players in the implementation of public policies are usually the administrative agencies. Nevertheless, specific considerations and bodies such as the judiciary, legislatures and the political executive are also involved in the process. That is because the implementation of the policy is difficult or complicated.
The next step is the start of an implementing process by varying administrative agencies. Once a law has been made by the legislatures as chosen by the executives, those agencies should follow the policies subject to the jurisdiction and the participants in the lawmaking process usually can not, or do not wish, to establish accurate guidelines due to the lack of interest, time or the knowledge of the matter under review.
This typically involves the composition of policies that cope with the administrative branch of government. However, today this conventional understanding has been altered as the legislatures have become concerned with implementing them by introducing particular laws that apply to specifics and seek and eradicate lots of bureaucratic power. This practice became a priority since the original draft did not address a large number of deficiencies in the implementation of policy arising from the issues. Also, when drawing up rules supporting existing legislation common as a legislative function, the administrative departments engage in formulating policies.
While top executive officers compete with each other’s policy factors to impact administrators through utilizing several methods, like the order of executive, to determine policies or the selection of most executive heads who contribute their resources, beliefs, and values to their activities and decisions. Whereas executive control effort is limited, the indication shows that Presidents and Governors generally manage their subordinates’ actions successfully (Marissa Golden, which mostly motivates the bureaucrats).
Also, if they have the responsibility of interpreting and revising the laws and the executive rules and examining their executive verdicts in matters presented before them, this may be the primary control on policy implementation, and occasionally the courts take over the management of the programs.
Currently, certain supreme courts acknowledge that any due process decision requires regulatory independence and autonomy, but are liable for intervention by national authorities.
Another position may be policymakers who are pressure groups that always try to impact the directive and policy in a manner that profits for their cause.