This paper discusses the new technologies that were used during wars in the eras of intensified global conflict like the world wars and the modern warfare crises by all countries including the United States.
There has been a significant advancement in various forms of airpower, transport and weapons that were noted on the battlefield from the 19th century to date. Technological inventions were several especially in the early 20th century which facilitates the shaping of the strategies in which the two greatest wars, World War I and World War II were waged (O’Callaghan, 24). The emergence of superior technology like submarines, radars, and atomic bombs amongst others together with experimented nuclear energy facilitated gave rise to numerous possibilities to exploit them in the civilian world. Moreover, these technological innovations concurred with their use in warfare which could be utilized to cause abundant harm and casualties. These technological innovations helped in easing attacks and in as well in defence. The United States amongst other countries embraced the use of various technologies when on battlefields. These technologies played a significant role in giving victory to those who use these technologies against those who did not. This paper discusses the new technological advancements that were used during wars in the eras of intensified global conflict like the world wars and the modern warfare crises by all countries including the United States.
Technological weapons were more advanced and superior than traditional weapons. Therefore, new technological weapons such as observation balloons were first utilized in the course of the French Revolutionary War, giving rise to unconventional military superiority as their use continued to be used during World War I (Murphy, 122). The precise use of these observation balloons differed, nonetheless, these balloons were mainly used for determining the location of enemy submarines, arms spotting and collecting intelligence. The structure of the observation was simple as its fabric envelopes were filled with hydrogen gas that was attached to steel cables. Throughout the 20th century, observation balloon was a key element that facilitated a transformation in combat operations (Murphy, 123). The opportunity of being able to fly the observation balloon over the enemy forces and view their encroachment gave rise to a new strategy of enacting global warfare techniques and up to now, observation balloons are still being used currently in Afghanistan and Iraq for military surveillance.
The radar was another new technology that was widely used especially by the United States. Radar technology usage has not reach dominance until the 1930’s it was realized that capability to remotely trace enemy ships and planes was highly required (Eldridge and Midford, 59). The usage of radar equipment was massive, enabling those using it to jam enemy signals thus cutting out their communication and also interfering with their intelligence transmissions. These activities are commonly known as electronic warfare. Apparently, electronic warfare substantially impacted combat because the war was not only being waged with tanks, rockets, and guns but also with radar. The exploitation of the new technology enables weapons like radar jammers to perceive, fight, and alter the strategies of the opposing force, and as a result, it caused drastic changes in the strategies that wars were waged and the ways of interaction among enemies.
Atomic bombs were innovated for mass destruction. These weapons are classified to be capable of causing indiscriminate harm and thus nuclear weapons are an issue of concern that has been consistently debated over many decades. However, the United States is the only country that has ever used nuclear weapons. It used two nuclear weapons during World War II ending. In 1945 United States made the two nuclear bombs so as to use them to destroy Nagasaki and Hiroshima cities in Japan (Eldridge and Midford, 74). As these occasions are the only instances that nuclear weapons have been utilized, it is therefore tentatively necessary to incorporate them inside showing new technology exploited in World War II.
Tanks were mostly used in battles on land in most countries. The allies initially developed these armoured tanks in 1915, though the first tanks were not used in battles the subsequent year. They were named since it was similar to water tanks. They were first exploited in 1916 in the Battle of Flers Courcelette whereby it was proved to be more of a death trap that kills the occupants instead of the enemies (Brose, 119). Early tanks were not reliable as they frequently broke down. Despite their impacts on World War I, the use of tanks and machine warfare had started growing increasingly in the years after the war. Eventually, tank technology reinstated mobility and became a terrifying weapon.
Almost all countries adopted the use of machine guns. Prior to World War I, the Gatling gun was the most preferred automated rapid-fire weapon. It looked like a cannon and was heavy thus resulting in its limited use in the 20th century (Jonter, 22). Vickers gun was developed in Britain, quite heavy that it needed at least six men to operate. It became reputable for its significant reliability. The Americans as well developed the Lewis gun which was light but untrustworthy. Even though a majority of the casualties resulting from the war were due to the heavy artillery, its portable nature and the machine gun’s strength made it more effective.
Submarine technology was one of the most effective and serious weapons that were first used in World War I. After World War I, the comparative gauche repulsive diesel system was introduced. They had improved armament though a few were used. Germany accelerated its production by building a U-boat fleet quick so as to use it against British warships and also to counter-blockage the British Isle (Jonter, 31). Three hundred and sixty were ultimately established. The resultant World War I shattered more enemy submarines than what the High Seas Fleet used to have and fraught British supplies that were costly. Consolidation of submarines into convoys secured by armed navy vessels was exploited in the war.
Poisonous gas was used in wars to kill the opposing forces. Albeit poison gas is accounted to have caused less number of deaths, its effects were persistent and overwhelming. In 1915, this gas was initially utilized by the Germans during the course of the Battle of Second Ypres (Turchetti and Roberts, 41). The poison gas was demonstrated to be inefficient to be a traditional weapon. Its effectiveness not only relied on the category of gas as well as the sophisticated method of delivery but also usually the weather conditions too. Nonetheless, poisonous gas turned out to be the most vital psychological weapon thus rendering soldiers and engineers to spend most of their time as well as resources expectations and protecting against petrifying death. Twenty years later, the fear resulted in influenced the military and civilian reaction to World War II.
Not all technological innovation associated with the war was intended to kill. Instead, during wars when injuries occurred, wounds need to be cleaned using something that could soak the blood. Sanitary napkins were introduced made up of a cellucotton initially established in the course of the war to be used as field bandages, that were more absorbent, affordable and quite abundant as compared to surgical cotton (Turchetti and Roberts, 54). It took quite a short time when some nurses discovered that cellucotton made up an efficacious sanitary napkin and eventual in 1920 commercial pads for women were introduced by Kotex.
Tactical air support was facilitated by the adoption of aeroplanes during wars. About 15 years later after the Wright brothers were flying at Kitty Hawk which was then applied for reconnaissance during World War I (Murphy, 131). the first planes built were primitive, though necessarily carried out their obliged task and within a short time, both sides began racing to develop a monoplane and biplane fighters which could carry bulky bombs together with machine guns at the same time maintaining their manoeuvrability. By the first half of 1915, the people on the ground were getting entertained by watching aeroplanes strike at each other in the sky and as a result, air superiority turned out to be a vital aspect of strategic success in the war’s second half.
In essence, technology played a major part in military operations. All countries exploited the various technological innovations in order to survive the war and gain dominance. New and advanced technological weapons tend to be superior to traditional weapons. And the more a country embraces technology, the more it gains its superiority and dominance on battlefields. It is clear that technological innovation had a gargantuan effect on the methods of fighting. All in all, these technological innovations have played a significant role in military life up to now as these technologies develop.