The Customs and Border Protection Agency takes an active role in the security trade of our ports. This agency assists in securing about 328 different ports located on land, air and the sea (the United States et al., 2013). They battle against terrorism and offer tight security along the borders. The economy is dependent on the Customs and Border Protection is assisting in international trade to ensure that the rules and regulations in place are followed to the latter at the ports. Initially, the United States Customs Service was established in 1789 (the United States et al., 2016). This agency has progressively continued to take an active role in playing a big role in the country’s security. The Customs and Border Protection oversees and control about one million different travellers on a daily basis which is equivalent to 360 million annually (the United States et al., 2016). The travelling rate worldwide has increased significantly as from the 9/11 attacks due to the increased security levels by the Customs and Border Protection Agency and other security agencies (the United States et al., 2016). Due to the improved security provided, several people are visiting the United States thus boosting the country’s economy. The Customs and Border Protection facilitates smooth and effective trade by creating order and keeping the peace which helps in building the economy of the country out of the trade and improved the rate of employment resulting from this trade.
The Customs and Border Protection agency is mandated to secure trade within Maritime Ports by ensuring that cargo is secure and undertake cargo examinations (Smith & Messina, 2004). Essentially, its role is to examine containers entering and leaving the ports to ensure that containers do not have any kind of contraband and ensure that nothing is there that is entering the ports that could result in damages. Moreover, they secure the ports by ensuring that anyone that enters the port has a proper and official identification card when entering the port (Smith & Messina, 2004). They usually check for Transportation Workers Identification Credential. The agency’s mandate is to enforce the trade and customs regulations that are followed in order to create order and an effective trade that positively impacts the country’s economy.
Homeland Security Act of 2002 significantly assisted in structuring the operations of the Customs and Border Protection by identifying alternative better methods of preventing future attacks such as the 9/11 attack (MCNICHOLAS, 2016). Also, the act assisted in with the vulnerabilities that existed in various locations. The program intends to be protected against all sorts of threats while still retaining a good and strong economy by ensuring that the ports are not slowed down by trade movements. In essence, the need for joint collaboration between the state, local and also federal government agencies was essential in order to ensure that effective security is provided (MCNICHOLAS, 2016). This act helped Customs and Border Protection to restructure its operations and provide its services at all levels of government to ensure effective security provision. The act also helped the agency by giving it powers for enforcing the import security laws established for the prevention of illegal massive destruction of weapons, contraband goods, and illegal drugs from getting into the United States. The act created an equitable relationship between the CBP as well as other traders with regard to responsibility sharing, informed conformity, and justifiable care (MCNICHOLAS, 2016). The act enables CBP to focus on the most critical security issues by providing a risk controlling strategy segregating importers into both lower and also higher risk categories thus enabling them to focus their activities to ensure an effective service provision.
The strategy of the act was to determine alternative ways for providing proper security to the ports of the United States protecting all facilities including ships, ports as well as cargo that are in the United States’ jurisdiction (Christopher, 2015). This helps in preventing various crimes like terrorism and enabled us to respond by utilizing precise security strategies based on the kind of situation at hand. This entails extensive training for all personnel working in the ports or associated with the process. It includes the local authorities, and state and federal agencies engaged in the security activities in these areas. The 2002 Maritime Transportation Security Act was established in order to improve the protection of the United States ports and waterways immediately after the 9/11 attack (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.).
The Maritime Transport Security Act of 2002 security strategy employs that; a more effective security measure should be developed by utilizing the risk-based methodology (Jones & Seghetti, n.d.). Literally, security laws emphasize the maritime industry areas that are having a higher risk of getting involved in a transport security case involving different tank vessels, cargo vessels, offshore oil, passenger vessels, barges, and towing vessels. There are some susceptibilities and threats confronting the United States ports but intervening strategies are in place to facilitate the assessment of these severe areas and identify methods for increasing security at the ports (Jones & Seghetti, n.d.). Security plans should be formulated on more than ten thousand vessels and five thousand facilities accompanied by stringent laws attributed to the security that should be followed.
The act is employing the use of security measures with security levels that are three scalable. Based on the security requirements, measures might entail vehicles, passenger luggage screening techniques; undertaking security patrols; establishment of restricted areas; employee identification techniques; access control measures and also ensuring the installation of adequate surveillance equipment (Christopher, 2015). The act employs that security agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security should encourage the private sector to focus on developing acceptable options for accommodating precise security measures. Alternatives affording a security level equivalent to the main law can be presented by single industry entities.
The approach that the act employs is that security regulations should be developed by means of inter-agency teamwork and coordination within Homeland Security which involve the Transport Security Administration, the Coast Guard, as well CBP, together with Transportation’s Maritime Administration (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). Literally, the Coast Guard is the most significant department that coordinates hand in hand with the CBP in the protection of all United States ports. The agency plays a significant role in the security process through the provision of extensive security numerous miles along the coastal lines (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). Its main aim is to ensure that the port’s borders are extended so as to prevent or even determine some threats as they emerge thus explaining the sequence of the security approach. However, this enables the Coast Guard to be able to hand over issues before they end up at the ports thus enabling the Customs and Border Protection to have enough time to react too against such threats.
Numerous natural gas facilities have been developed to assist with deep-water ports which enable easy unload of natural gas and eventual enabling easy reception of natural gas (Smith & Messina, 2004). Both of these agencies have armed personnel fighting against terrorism using some vessels as weapons. They control the sea day and night with more than 21,000 vessels coming in and out of the fifty-five United States ports (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). Therefore, the need for improved security literally means that more people have to be recruited so there has been increased recruitment among all agencies involved as the MTSA implies.
In my perspective, I view the Global Maritime Transportation system is deemed to change significantly in the next decade. To begin with, shipping has always been a significant human activity all through history especially where prosperity relied mainly on both international and trade inter-regional trade (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). Actually, Global Maritime Transport has been referred to as one of the cornerstones of globalization together with communication, trade liberalization as well as international standardization. The Global Maritime Transport System is likely to significantly change due to globalization (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). Of late, globalization has significantly impacted and transformed maritime transport and since globalization continues to increase as time goes by, it is certain that maritime transport will change too.
Globalization trends are deemed to be either beneficial or harmful to global stability, sustainable development, peace and the environment at large. Global maritime transportation facilitates globalization (Christopher, 2015). Generally, maritime transportation and also shipping, in particular, have always been the main ingredients that foster globalization. The maritime industry as well has been transforming its technologies such as labour resources and also national and international registries during the past decades in order to meet the globalization demands. In essence, globalization has alleviated maritime shipping demands whereas maritime shipping being a core component of a large goods movement has entirely facilitated globalization (Corbett & Winebrake, n.d.). It is certain that global maritime transportation will change and transform its operations or activities in order to meet the rapid globalization demands in the next decade.
To merge with globalization and technological advancement, it is likely that the qualification standards to work in maritime transportation will change. Employees with high technical skills and well trained will be considered for employment in maritime transportation (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). The operation of ships will require seafarers who are highly skilled and talented. Working conditions will improve due to the advancement of technology such as automation of work and the use of machines which ease work (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). The Global Maritime Transportation industry will change by connecting most of its operations to internet connectivity. Systems, objects, and machines will be controlled through the internet. However, this technological development may make the industry change the workforce labour by minimizing the workforce labour population.
With the technology development and the advancement of the Internet of Things whereby the maritime transport industry will change to automate all their operation through the installation of internet connectivity in their systems, machines, and objects, they will be prone to cybersecurity issues (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). Cybersecurity issue is a universal concern because it occurs through the internet which is a connectivity medium that connects people and organizations across the world. Cybersecurity issue does not have geographic limits and it is a global issue (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). The maritime transport industry will be likely to face a universal concern of cybersecurity issues such as internet hacking and online fraud. Embracing technology development through embracing internet connectivity in all aspects of operations in order to meet the demands of globalization is incredible and a good movie but is faced with critical cybersecurity issues.
Maritime transportation will be likely to face cyber threats of hacking more often. Online hacking on the internet has been rampant and occurs more often. As maritime transportation changes its processes and embraces the full convenience of the internet they will expect to encounter hacking (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). This leads to data breaching which ends up compromising the maritime transport system. The information obtained through hacking can be used against the company and which can cause significant damage and loss to the company. Moreover, for ships, pirates can hack into ships servers to control the ship and take over the ship.
The maritime transportation industry is also likely to encounter malware and virus attacks. Computer viruses, spyware including malicious software damage the web. Such viruses damage the system’s performance and destroy the company’s data (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). Since the maritime transport industry will have embraced the online community using the internet in all its operations, it will be prone to attacks of viruses which can damage the company’s important data on its website and servers. This can lead to the loss of vital information and data which can cause a significant impact on the operation of the maritime transport industry worldwide. Viruses can cause malfunctioning of internet-operated ships or communication between the control room and the ship operators causing delays, confusion or even accidents (“US Coast Guard,” n.d.). Additionally, the maritime transportation industry is likely to encounter internet fraud. This is possible because the internet connectivity exposes the company to online fraudsters who may steal from the company or from the company’s clients. Online fraud affects a company negative since it makes its clients lose trust in them and as well leads to several litigations. In essence, as the maritime transportation industry will change to implement internet-assisted operations in all its aspects of activities, the most critical security issue they will face is the cybersecurity issue.