Americas’ global containment policy followed shortly after the Second World War. The US and the Soviet Union, vying for power and influence, are taken to the Cold War that has been waged by deception, foreign aid, international partnerships, conflicts with surrogates, and espionage. All governments wanted to hinder the other from growing their influence because of mistrust and rivalry between the nations. George F. Kennan, an American diplomat, 1946, introduced a program of containment, the avoidance of any expansion to other countries under communist rule. While containment in the Middle East was more effective than in Latin America, by providing resources, arms, and humanitarian aid, both regions permitted the strategy to escape communist ideas and actions.
President Harry S. Truman requested Congress on March 12, 1947, for $400 million in military and economic assistance to Turkey and Greece. Truman made the people remember the problems created by World War II, which then allowed the development of communism and fascism. Truman pronounced that “by helping’ free peoples’ worldwide, the U.S. would both improve the multinational capitalist system on which the wealth of America relied on time and prevent future war. Communism must not go any further”(Ross, 34). Their plan of Truman became recognized as the Truman Doctrine, an illustration of containment. The Doctrine was a strategy of getting rid of imperialism and supplying economic and military support to nations that wished to become free.
In 1951, Containment was tested in the Middle East, when the previous Iran Prime Minister, Mohammad Mossadegh, was placed into Iranian command of private oil field companies owned by Britain. In protest, Great Britain refused to purchase Iranian oil and set off the threat of Iran appealing to the Soviet Union for aid from the United States. The CIA In 1953 took a covert action in Iran. Anti-Mossadegh advocates were provided with several million dollars by the CIA, preferring Iran’s pro-American Shah to come to power. The CIA also took another secret action in Latin America. President Eisenhower believed that the government of Guatemala had carried out revolutionary acts by granting farmers over 200,000 acres of land belonging to America. The outcome was that the CIA prepared an army to attack Guatemala’s government. The Guatemalan military refuses the president’s protection, contributing to Guatemala’s military leader becoming a tyrant. The Middle East was much more effective in maintaining the American containment policy because the Shah of Iran handing over the management of Iranian oil reserves to Western Industries.
However, not only did Guatemala and Iran contend with the covert operations of the CIA but also with Nicaragua. In 1961, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) was established in Nicaragua. When the U.S. learned that the Soviet Union and Nicaragua, Cuba sold weapons to the Salvadoran rebels, they terminated their aid. El Salvador’s Sandinistas’ “topped Nicaragua’s government and set up a Marxist government” In 1979 (Robert J. Coates). Thanks to the Boland law, confinement fails in Nicaragua. In 1982, the House of Representatives of the U.S passed the Boland Amendment banning the U.S from supplying the contras of Nicaragua.
The policy was condemned by both U.S. enemies and allies in 1984, prompting Nicaragua to petition the U.S. at World Court. Due to the U.S financing money in arms, Nicaragua permitted containment to keep the contras away. Consequently, the president of the U.S, Ronald Reagan, didn’t want Marxist Bernard Coard to succeed Maurice Bishop, who, on October 25, 1983, accompanied the Marines to invade Grenada. For this island, much has not been done. Grenada is still very poor. Grenada’s containment was ineffective when Grenada welcomed Fidel Castro to the country to show a sign of communism. Cuba can refer to Iran, Guatemala, and Nicaragua as it had U.S. support from the CIA. Containment was successful in the Cuban Missile crisis, and Pigs Bay was still an effort to deter communist actions and ideas. Eisenhower In 1960, allowed the CIA to train Cuban emigrants for Cuba’s annexation covertly. The CIA and emigrants thought the conquest of Cuba would overthrow Castro. The air force of Cuba had not been wiped out by airstrike, but the CIA claims it to be successful.
President Kennedy arranged the liberation of the remaining commandos with Fidel Castro and made $53 million in donations of food and medical supplies. On 14 October 1962, Soviet nuclear missiles were revealed as regard the Cuban missile crisis. President Kennedy had let everyone be aware that there would be an all-out assault on the Soviet Union if any missile attack were carried out on Cuba. In return for no invasion of Cuba, Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev offered to remove the missiles.
After President Jimmy Carter had toasted Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, declaring Iran an “island of peace” in the Middle East. It wasn’t because the president had persuaded the Shah to make the U.S bidding, Pahlavi had met eight leaders as far back as Franklin Delano Roosevelt had vigorously advocated for fighter jets, naval assets, and military equipment during his lifetime. He aimed to protect Iran’s supremacy in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf.
“The US also taught the pilots of Iran and established many intelligence-gathering bases in the Iran northern mountains, intended to detect Soviet Missile tests and intercept Soviet military communications.” The partnership between Washington and Tehran was mutually beneficial and had been pursued and nurtured by both the United States and Iran. Iran was regarded as the US stalwart ally. While it is apparent that Israel, which owes its very life to the dollars in US international funding, would always be a collaborator in the Middle East, the course of the political winds in the Arab world after World War II was not clear.
The Israeli problem was significant, but it’s unconvinced of the reality that four decades before the collapse of the USSR and the Eastern bloc, it could not have captured the hearts and minds of the Arabs. The policy/doctrine of containment has been a consideration here again. While Americans do not need to be fearful of Arab submission to the Soviet Union, after all, the Arabs didn’t want to become Kremlin satellites. Subsequent US policymakers have made all practicable attempts to force the Middle East to go into a capitalist/pro-democracy camp.
In general, the USA tried to prevent communism from spreading. Latin America and the Middle East have been subject to containment. Communism, with all the nations, has something in common, which is equal pay. El Salvador, Grenada, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Cuba, Egypt, Israel, and Iran were communists by the Soviet Union. Civil unrest and Poverty also damaged Latin America. In a free opinion, containment in the Middle East has been more successful due to financial, military, and terrorist aid relief.